Twelve Imams in Torah: A New approach to the Ishmael Promise

Document Type : Original Article



One of the questions concerning Gen 17: 18 and 20 is whether these
verses could be regarded as a promise of the arrival of Muḥammad
and the Twelve Shīʿī Imams. According to Abraham’s prayer for his
son, Ismael (17: 18), and the way in which it was divinely fulfilled (17:
20), it may be claimed that God promised to Abraham that He will
assign “Imamate” to Muḥammad and the Twelve Imams, descendants
of Ishmael. This Interpretation is based on the analogy between the
term “Rabbī” in Gen 17: 20 and the concept of “Imam” in Shīʿī Islam,
as well as some pieces of evidence supporting that Muḥammad is the
very referent of “דואמ דואמ” (Me’od Me’od). Furthermore, concordance
in etymological study among the names of some of Twelve Shīʿī Imams
and those of Ismael’s children in the Gen 25: 1315-corroborates the